Sensitivity Analysis on Discount Rate. The Net Savings results for the building types follow a similar sequence by location. The differences in local prices determine the relative savings in each location; for instance, Miami has highest water and wastewater disposal costs, and Baltimore has the highest energy costs, and these relative factor unit prices increase the value of those reductions for those locations. These incremental costs do not account for any of the first costs for the PV systems so they need to be calculated separately. The tools provide a standardized approach to collect and organize data and to automate the calculation of the measures of economic efficiency.

A straight line through the origin is shown that connects the average for each building type. This report outlines the methodology and findings by the consultant to analyze the cost-benefit, return on investment, and long-term payback for the specified building design standards and ratings systems. No data is currently collected in the LEED certification process related to expected reductions in solid waste municipal or hazardous or operations and maintenance general labor and equipment, cleaning, and landscaping , and therefore no data was provided, so these measures were then excluded from the analysis. In addition, the second portion of this study tested the applicability of the analytical approach, process and tools developed for this research to military construction and renovation projects going forward, as further input for the DOD comprehensive strategy. Design, construction, and a plan for operation and maintenance, and Utilization of on-site, renewable energy resources. While EIA provides energy escalation rates for each year, this study uses the annual equivalent escalation rate of 0.

Cse Annual Net Savings, then, reflect the energy and water reductions as well as the total value of those reductions based on the local market price.


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In this sample, the water savings for the hotels is often more than half of the Annual Net Savings. Sensitivity Analysis on Factor Price Escalation.

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Architecture-Fixed across all Prototypes. Public data sources including press releases, articles, and other public data sources provided construction cost data for 11 projects.

For purposes of this study the energy savings and first costs for Std. The reduction in water usage was higher for Hotels than Offices because of the laundry facilities included in the Hotels. It is not possible in this study, given the relatively small size of the sample and the short time frame, to draw conclusions on relative trends in construction cost for LEED buildings, but previous studies have likewise found high variation in construction costs independent of expected building performance.

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Department of Defense Efficiency Initiatives: Correct modeling of the interactions was beyond the scope of this project and is best done thorough detailed hourly simulation models such as EnergyPlus. These potential Wji Savings can also be viewed as the potential future additional costs that may be incurred for these building types and locations under different scenarios.

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Time period at which initial investment is recovered, as a measure of capital liquidity. The analysis used to develop these first costs and energy consumptions has required many simplifying assumptions. Table 8 Conditioned Space and Roof Areas. For instance, three factors may specifically influence the initial investment costs for high performance facilities: LEED is a voluntary rating system that uses credits that are weighted to reflect potential environmental impacts and responsiveness to regional issues.

Green Globes Long-term Cost-Benefit: Table 15 Summary of Results for Standard The results for a 4 kW panel are presented in Table The major difference between Standards Showers are also included in the hotel template calculations. This analysis examines specifically those costs that could have been avoided for these buildings if they were built under the guidance of these building standards. Ready to take your reading offline?


Payback Payback is the time period in which initial investment is recovered, as a measure of capital liquidity.

Strategies and Approaches for Transformational Change. Therefore, ggbi study will use the construction costs provided for these Green Globes projects, with the caveat that this data has not been independently verified and may include costs related to specific technical or special function requirements that are not related to this study.

Table 1 Representative Cities.

LCCA is particularly suitable for the evaluation of building design. Locations for the Study. Design Landscape to keep water rainwater, storm water, and irrigation water where it falls.

These were based on an average acse sampled flow rates for showers in hotels throughout the U. Table 13 Standard Building Cleaning—includes labor, cleaning materials and equipment.

The methodology consists of the following elements:. This analysis calculated the Net Savings and other economic efficiency measures using the energy and water costs relative to the incremental construction costs initial investment costs compared to the baseline prototype buildings.

gbi case study wmi

Market development is associated with achieving economies of scale, where the marginal cost to produce each unit decreases as the number of units increase.