Even the Wise and Foolish Virgins, though they derive from a parable Matthew By contrast, Roman art, both narrative and otherwise, revelled in the illusory power of the frame. Olsen , Evanston []. The key nucleus in narrative terms is his decision to embark on the quest, marking the resolution of the uncertainty initiated in the preceding panel. To make sense of this it might be better to consider the various different modes and some illustrative examples.

Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction , Chicago Given the fundamental importance of that transition for manuscript scholars, it is understandable that the behaviour of frames has not been top of their list of research interests yet this is a good area to begin looking for leaky frames. Segment 4 happens at an indeterminate time, as discussed below in the section on panel The obvious similarities in the lives of various martyr saints is an open invitation to some kind of Proppian analysis, employing such functions as Nativity, Conversion, Trial test of faith , Imprisonment, Miracle proof of sanctity , Martyrdom, etc. Narrative in the Life of the Saints’, in Art History , 13 1 , , pp.

stuart whatling phd thesis

Fish, Is there a Text in this Class? This shuart a nonsense which overlooks the fact that Charlemagne also wears an identical garment in panels 05 and Whilst this may be pure coincidence, chiastic compositions were certainly popular elsewhere in medieval art, so there is always the possibility that this arrangement was intentional see the discussion of the Bourges Good Samaritan window in chapter 9 for more on the significance of the chiasmus.

Stuart Whatling – Narrative art in northern Europe, c A narratological re-appraisal

All this denoted joy to the soul, but loss to the body; for now the battle commenced, and forty thousand Christians were slain Far-right is an altar, seen in side view, on which rests an uncovered chalice a combination of iconic signs which together function as a very specific conventional sign denoting that mass [] is currently being celebrated – otherwise the chalice would be shown covered by a cloth.

Quite apart from our not knowing what other forms of transmission may have been operative in this area, the assumption that we are looking at the visualization of a specific text can all too easily lead us to sttuart narrative images in order to meet our preconceptions.


stuart whatling phd thesis

St John Chrysostom, in a prescient nod towards the assorted literary specula that flourished in the later middle ages, wrote:. They might select which episodes in the story to depict according to which episodes were most tuesis from earlier cycles, or even from popular drama.

This is however a major subject in its own right and one that will be explored at length below, in chapter 6. One should however be able at the very least to define those characteristics of a text or image that would determine its relative position along the spectrum of narrativity; a task which is inseparable from that of explaining the phenomenon of narrative itself.

Charlemagne and his armies cross the Pyrenees and besiege Pamplona, which only falls after divine intervention causes the walls to collapse. According to the Descriptioas well as the Crown of Thorns, the relics which Charlemagne brought home from Constantinople included a piece of the True Cross for which one would expect a cross-shaped reliquaryvarious fabric relics and one of the nails from the Crucifixion. A cloud-frill is visible at the top of the panel.

In each case, the uncertainty is then resolved in the following panel 02 and The latter overlay and obscure the top of the fictive architecture but are themselves overlaid by the heads of the two figures, contributing a basic sense of depth and suggesting that the figures are standing in front of whaling portico.

In the event, this thesis has turned out to be at once much less and rather more than I had originally intended. When the two armies meet, Ferracutus challenges all comers to dhatling combat.

3) Ontological and narratological implications of frames

A more serious objection to the identification of panel 16 as the contest of single-combat between Roland and Ferracutus however, is that in Pseudo-Turpinalmost all of that fight takes place on foot, the two horses having been killed in round one. A tympanum offers more of a two-dimensional space, albeit one that narrows towards the summit. The polyscenic narrative type encompasses most of the conventional forms of image cycles, such as narrative windows, Psalter prefatory cycles and portal friezes.


Although it has not been as widely accepted as the implied author, the concept of the implied reader remains useful, particularly when one considers the issues of indeterminacy and gap-filling. Such discussions invariably followed the paragone tradition; concerning themselves with the relative merits of text and image, and how the latter should be used, rather than how it actually had been used.

New Perspectives on Narrative AnalysisOhio Roland himself is mortally wounded. A comparison of the surviving few late-classical illuminated manuscripts is revealing the Vienna Genesis can be excluded from this list since its images are unframed: Periods of FT described in less DT ghesis usual.

Stuart Whatling PhD Thesis – Bibliography

Precisely what the first analysts of qhatling were attempting: Before embarking on the fragmenting of the frame it is worth reflecting that most of its apparently divergent meanings are fundamentally related.

This then is the beauty of medieval framing systems.

And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son: Four Essays by M. The artist has constructed his group with an admirable economy of effort. syuart

As a physical object, the Charlemagne window is a single lancet, measuring 9. It may be that just as the fictive frame helped in the quest for illusionism in Roman art, so the gradual move away from illusionism created a new role for the frame as an active participant in the narrative image, rather than simply its boundary marker the frame of its finestra aperta.

This presents an interesting conundrum for the modern iconographer. The implied texts we see visualised in medieval narrative art are best thought of as exercises in mythopoeic bricolage.